The last decade’s revolution in material science has provided researchers with highly complex and precisely engineered materials that can be shaped, organized and addressed at the nanometer-scale. The possibility to produce manmade materials at sizes smaller than cells has generated an enormous interest in creating systems that address critical medical needs. This new opportunity can also inspire and revolutionize how biomedical research is confronted. Medical nanoscience thus represents an interdisciplinary research field of wide medical applicability. The Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, inaugurated 2009, represents such an environment where medical problems are solved using cuttingedge nano-technological approaches. In addition to high-impact, basic and applied academic research, outcomes from our research shall lead to novel therapies for the patient’s benefit, and new tools for biomedical research.